Sound in motion pictures attracted new audiences, including young children. Sound also ushered in a cycle of grim violent realism that sparked yet another outcry from an increasingly vocal public.

In March 31, 1930, the MPPDA issued a statement of policy called the The Motion Picture Production Code (also known as the Hays Code). It set up a small jury to review films for content, Understaffed and headed by ineffectual but mostly uninterested board members, the Hays Code was still without teeth and largely mocked by industry insiders.

Joseph I. Breen

Joseph I. Breen

That changed when the American Bishops of the Roman Catholic Church organized The Legion of Decency and in 1934 with the support of Protestant and Jewish Organizations began calling for boycotts of films deemed unacceptable.

This was the dollar that broke the camel’s back - The Hollywood studios, still reeling from the losses of 1933 due in large part to the delayed effects of the Great Depression, were forced to act.

The Hays Office authorized to set up the Production Code Administration (PCA) with Catholic laymen Joseph I. Breen as head.

The MPPDA agreed to show only films that carried the PCA seal of approval and the studios voluntarily gave the PCA the authority to review and delete morally objectionable material from both the final script and the final cut of the film.

Breen enforced the code zealously. Forbidden were scenes of passion - films had to uphold the sanctity of marriage. Adultery, seduction and rape were never to be more than suggested and only if absolutely necessary to the plot and always punished at the end. Profanity, racial epithets, implications of prostitution, drug addiction, nudity, sexually suggestive dancing and costumes were all verboten.

OSullivan_Jane

The code also addressed violence. It was forbidden to go into detail of a crime, display machine guns or illegal weapons or even discuss weapons on screen. Law Enforcement was never to be shown dying at the hands of a criminal and all crime had to be punished in the end.

This rigid Catholic sensibility of good vs evil was a far cry from the loose morals of the anything goes Jazz Age.

So why did the studios agree to such Draconian self censorship? There are several reasons. It kept Washington from exercising even more control over the studios, It quelled fears from religious groups threatening boycotts during economically unstable times. And lastly, and perhaps most cynically, the Production Code was sort of a blue print for screenwriters. Stories could move in only one direction - love ended in marriage, crime ended in punishment - a simple efficient method for the studio system to streamline the story process and mass produce as many movies as possible.