Eva Green by Mike Figgis | Johnny Depp by Mark Seliger | Prince & Stevie Wonder | Dakota Johnson by Mary Ellen Matthews | Brigitte Bardot by Sabine Weiss | Gloria Swanson and Billy Wilder on set of Sunset Blvd. | Marion Cotillard by Ellen von Unwerth | Marilyn Monroe by Sam Shaw | François Truffaut by Jeanloup Sieff | Julianne Moore by Camilla Åkrans | Jimi Hendrix by Petra Niemeier, 1967 | Anne Hathaway by Kai Z Feng | Scarlett Johansson by Mario Testino | Alfred Hitchcock and daughter Patricia 1962 | Monica Bellucci by Vincent Peters | Cary Grant test footage from the film "Kiss And Make Up" | Gemma Arterton by Vincent Peters | Christoph Waltz by David Sims | Tommy Lee Jones vs Meryl Streep by Robert Trachtenberg | Louis Armstrong, Paul Newman and Duke Ellington | Jessica Alba by Cliff Watts | Willem Dafoe by Christian Witkin | On the Set of Charlie Chaplin's Modern Times (1936) | Brian De Palma and Al Pacino on the set of Carlito's Way | Ray Liotta by Christian Witkin | Three Stooges in and out of character | Martin Scorsese by Christian Witkin | Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman are directed by Alfred Hitchcock on the set of Notorious | Brad Pitt and Morgan Freeman in Se7en | Stanley Kubrick on the set of Full Metal Jacket | Eddie Redmayne by Nino Muñoz | Marion Cotillard by Alex Prager | Dakota Fanning by Vincent Peters | Marion Cotillard by Alex Prager | Jennifer Lawrence by Paolo Roversi | Ron Howard and George Lucas on the set of Willow | J K Simmons by Mark Seliger | Clive Owen by Jason Bell | Julianne Moore by Miller Mobley | Alejandro Inarritu by Mark Seliger | Beatnik Hitchcock from Alfred Hitchcock Presents intro to A Night with the Boys. | Ray Harryhausen on Clash of The Titans | Sigourney Weaver by Craig McDean | Lupita Nyong'o by Steven Pan | Heath Ledger on the set of The Dark Knight | Michael Caine by Jason Bell | Natalie Portman by Annie Leibovitz | Jude Law by Jason Bell | Kristen Stewart by Steven Klein | Anne Bancroft on the set of The Graduate (1967) by Bob Willoughby. | Salvador Dali by Philippe Halsman | Heather Graham by Ellen von Unwerth | Chloë Sevigny by Mark Peckmezian | Bradley Cooper by Tim Walker | Michael Keaton by Michael Lewis | Julianne Moore & daughter Liv Freundlich by Annie Leibovitz | J.K. Simmons by Caitlin Cronenberg | Rosamund Pike by Ren Rox | Orson Welles With Hands | Wes Anderson by Solve Sundsbo | Johnny Depp by Annie Leibovitz | Ed Harris by Andy Gotts | Penelope Cruz and Sophia Loren by Annie Leibovitz | Ralph Fiennes by Helmut Newton | Liv Tyler by Albert Watson | Francis Ford Coppola and his daughter Sophia on the set of The Godfather: Part II | Julianne Moore by Miller Mobley | Rosamund Pike by Julian Broad | Jimmy Stewart and Alfred Hitchcock on the set of ROPE | Angelina Jolie by Annie Leibovitz | Tom Hanks by Miller Mobley | John Huston and Marilyn Monroe during the filming of The Misfits by Eve Arnold | Stanley Kubrick explaining how films work to his daughter Vivien | Michael Keaton by Miller Mobley | Eva Green by Ellen Von Unwerth | Steve Carell by Miller Mobley | Kristen Wiig by Michael David Friberg | Albert Einstein playing the piano at the Nara Hotel in Japan 1922 | Michael Keaton and Alejandro González Iñárritu on Birdman | Wes Anderson and Bill Murray behind the scenes of Fantastic Mr Fox | Behind the Scenes Photos From 2001: A Space Odyssey | Lon Chaney Sr. by Ruth Harriet Louise | Marion Cotillard by Ben Hassett | Scarlett Johansson by Mert & Marcus | Michael Fassbender by Paul Wetherell | Eva Green by Paolo Roversi | Stan Lee with Spider-Man | Stanley Kubrick on Set | Danny DeVito by Pal Hansen | Benedict Cumberbatch by Jason Bell | Jennifer Lawrence by Patrick Demarchelier | Norman Reedus by Andreas Laszlo Konrath | Natalie Portman by Tim Walker | Ewan McGregor by Simon Emmett | Sigourney Weaver by Helmut Newton | George Clooney by Martin Schoeller | Cobie Smulders by Justin Bishop | Marilyn Monroe by Sam Shaw | Anne Hathaway by Alexi Lubomirski | Salma Hayek by Cass Bird | Winona Ryder by Michael David Friberg | Matthew McConaughey by Eric Ray Davidson | Christina Ricci by Mert & Marcus | Maggie Gyllenhaal by Miguel Reveriego | Nicole Kidman by Patrick Demarchelier | Miles Teller by Justin Bishop | Colin Firth by Andy Gotts | Eva Green by Matt Irwin | Monica Bellucci by Ruven Afanador | Philip Seymour Hoffman by Irving Penn | Eva Green by Ellen Von Unwerth | Django artwork by Tracie Ching | Robert Downey Jr by Michael Muller | Milla Jovovich by Peter Lindbergh | Julianne Moore by Miller Mobley | Kate Winslet by Alistair Morrison | Harvey Keitel by Timothy White | Mel Brooks by Andrew Eccles | Jessica Chastain by Bruce Weber | Christina Ricci by Peggy Sirota | Dakota Johnson by Mario Testino | Eva Green by Marc Hom | Jessica Chastain by Annie Leibovitz | Amy Adams by Annie Leibovitz | Jaime Pressly by Nigel Parry | Benicio Del Toro by Denis Rouvre | Drew Barrymore by Ellen von Unwerth | Samuel L. Jackson by Timothy White | Penelope Cruz by Annie Leibovitz | Marilyn Monroe by Bert Stern | Ashley Judd by Timothy White | Michael Cera and Jason Bateman by Christopher Anderson | Stanley Kubrick on set of 2001: A Space Odyssey | Robert Downey Jr by Timothy White | Sean Connery on The Molly Maguires by Cyril Maitland | Marion Cotillard by Ruven Afanador | Samuel L. Jackson by Timothy White | Scarlett Johansson by Annie Leibovitz | Uma Thurman by Annie Leibovitz | Dianna Vavra and Chet Baker by Hendryckx Michiel | Bill Nighy by Nadav Kander | Tina Fey by Ruven Afanador | Cesar Romero prior to filming his surfing scene with Adam West on "Batman", 1967 | Michael Caine in a promo still for Get Carter | Djimon Honsou by Fabrizio Ferri | Kit Harington by Steven Klein | Brigitte Bardot by Sam Levin | Ridley Scott and Sigourney Weaver on the set of Alien | Marlon Brando playing pool with Anthony Quinn on the set of Viva Zapata! by Sam Shaw, 1951 | Martin Scorsese, Robert De Niro and Joe Pesci on the set of Casino | Stanley Kubrick on the set of Spartacus | Julianne Moore by Mario Sorrenti | Jean Harlow by George Hurrell -1932 | Marlon Brando chatting with Jacques Tati on the set of One-Eyed Jacks | Audrey Hepburn by Richard Avedon | Tom Hanks by Taili Song Roth | Martin Scorsese behind the scenes of Goodfellas | Kate Winslet by Mario Testino | Steven Spielberg by Marco Grob | Christoph Waltz by Brian Bowen Smith | Uma Thurman by Ellen von Unwerth | Kyle MacLachlan by John Midgley | 13 year-old Dick Jones recording his lines for "Pinocchio", 1940 | Peter Sellers and Stanley Kubrick on the set of Dr. Strangelove | Jessica Chastain by Craig McDean | Sean Connery and Michael Caine by Michael O'Neill | Kate Winslet by Peter Lindbergh | Susan Sarandon by Timothy White | Cillian Murphy by Christian Oita | Charlize Theron by Sheryl Nields | Winona Ryder by Amanda Friedman | JK Simmons by Tim Walker | Monica Bellucci by Vincent Peters | Jennifer Connelly by Lorenzo Agius | Rachel Weisz by Lorenzo Agius | Joaquin Phoenix by Brigitte Lacombe | On the set of Dr. Strangelove | Bill Murray in Groundhog Day | Jessica Chastain by Lorenzo Agius | Michael Fassbender by Mario Testino | Naomi Watts by Max Abadian | Julianne Moore by Driu & Tiago | Alfred Hitchcock directs Suzanne Pleshette and Rod Taylor in The Birds | Akira Kurosawa directing The Seven Samurai | Christoph Waltz by Ben Hassett | Marilyn Monroe by Milton Greene | Monica Bellucci by Peter Lindbergh | J.K. Simmons by Ben Hassett | Robin Williams with Crystal the monkey on the set of Night at the Museum 3 | Marion Cotillard by Thomas Whiteside | Tommy Lee Jones by Tim Walker | Mel Brooks with the cast of Young Frankenstein, Madeline Kahn, Gene Wilder, Teri Garr, Kenneth Mars and Marty Feldman, at The Daisy in Beverly Hills, 1974 | Anita Ekberg on the set of La Dolce Vita | Naomi Watts by Max Abadian | Kubrick on the set of Dr Strangelove | Naomi Watts by Mark Seliger | Kate Winslet by Alexi Lubomirski | Joan Crawford by George Hurrell | David Bowie by David LaChapelle | Ethan Hawke by Tim Walker | Sue Lyon on the set of "Lolita" by Willy Rizzo | Marilyn Monroe with director Billy Wilder on the set of "The Seven Year Itch" | Michael Keaton by Ben Hassett | Tom Hiddleston by David Titlow | Scarlett Johansson by Tim Walker | Reese Witherspoon by Ben Hassett | Woody Allen filming at Coney Island for Annie Hall | Marion Cotillard by Ryan McGinley | Angelina Jolie by Patrick Demarchelier | Tommy Lee Jones by Alex John Beck | Harrison Ford by Terry O'Neill | Alfred Hitchcock by Elio Sorci | Julie Andrews by Cecil Beaton | Reese Witherspoon by Ruven Afanador | Denzel Washington by Jeffrey Henson Scales | Marilyn Monroe as Marlene Dietrich by Richard Avedon | Marilyn Monroe and Jane Russell on the set of ‘Gentlemen Prefer Blondes’, 1953 | Emily Blunt by Paola Kudacki | Brooke Shields by Albert Watson | Diane Kruger by Mert & Marcus | Russell Crowe by Michael Muller | Amanda Plummer & Quentin Tarantino on the set of Pulp Fiction | Penelope Cruz by Nico Bustos | Steve Buscemi when he worked as a firefighter at the New York City Fire Department, 1981. | Paul Thomas Anderson on the set of Inherent Vice | Mark Hamill and Carrie Fisher on the set of The Empire Strikes Back | Jennifer Lawrence by Joe Pugliese | Director Robert Zemeckis, Sally Field and Tom Hanks on the set of Forrest Gump | Elizabeth Hurley by Ellen von Unwerth | Christian Bale by Mikael Jansson | Scarlett Johansson by Dean Chalkley | Jude Law by Tom Craig | Christina Hendricks by Tony Duran | Jessica Chastain by Giampaolo Sgura | Evan Rachel Wood by JUCO | Emily Blunt by Amanda Friedman | Matthew McConaughey by Eric Ray Davidson | Christoph Waltz and Ralph Fiennes by Ben Hassett | John Lithgow and Julianne Moore by Elaine Constantine | Eva Green by Ellen von Unwerth | Audrey Tautou by Sylvie Lancrenon | Nicole Kidman by Chen Man | Jude Law By Platon | Charlie Chaplin by Lee Miller | Amy Adams by Annie Leibovitz | Tina Fey by Platon | James Dean pushing a go-kart photographed by Dennis Stock | Robin Williams, Mike Nichols, Nathan Lane and crew on-set of The Birdcage | Christoph Waltz by Brian Bowen Smith | Jack Nicholson in Makeup for the Joker | Photographing Stanley Kubrick's Barry Lyndon | Federico Fellini by Tazio Secchiaroli | Mark Ruffalo and Jessica Chastain by Ben Hassett | Steve Buscemi by Jeff Riedel | Johnny Depp by David Bailey | Lana Turner and Artie Shaw in the film Dancing Co-Ed, 1939 | Jack Nicholson by David Bailey | Mila Kunis by Cliff Watts | Charles Chaplin and Max Linder | Heather Graham by Gus Van Sant | Angelina Jolie by Mario Testino | Claudia McNeil and Sidney Poitier in Raisin in the Sun 1961 | Maggie Gyllenhaal by Collier Schorr | Matthew McConaughey by Eric Ray Davidson | Emily Blunt by Norman Jean Roy | Alfred Hitchcock by Thurston Hopkins | Christian Bale by Peggy Sirota | Joaquin Phoenix by Amanda Demme | Marilyn Monroe and Clark Gable on the set of the film Misfits by Cornell Capa. | Ryan Gosling And Nicolas Winding Refn on the set of Drive | Jodie Foster by Julian Wasser | Christoph Waltz by Marco Grob | Marilyn Monroe in The Misfits by Henri Cartier-Bresson | Elvis Presley by Alfred Wertheimer | Nicole Kidman by Annie Leibovitz | Audrey Hepburn by William Klein | Cate Blanchett by Ryan McGinley | Eva Green by David Bellemere | Kat Dennings by Isaac Sterling | Stanley Kubrick covered in silly string by his daughter on Christmas, 1983. | Scarlett Johansson by Benjamin Alexander Huseby | Audrey Hepburn by William Klein | Penelope Cruz by Nico Bustos | Krysten Ritter by Tony Duran | Sean Connery by Larry Shaw | Stanley Kubrick on the set of A Clockwork Orange | Conan O'Brian by Marco Grob | Alfred Hitchcock, Cary Grant and Ingrid Bergman on the set of Notorious. | Cameron Diaz by Michael Thompson | Ewan McGreggor by Andreas Laszlo Konrath | Kate Winslet by Jason Bell | Marilyn Monroe by Earl Moran | Cate Blanchett by Ryan McGinley | Keanu Reeves by Deborah Feingold | Christian Bale by Mikael Jansson | Joseph Gordon-Levitt by Sam Jones | Brad Pitt by Mark Seliger | Marion Cotillard by Jean-Baptiste Mondino | Tommy Lee Jones by Alex John Beck | Johnny Depp by Sante D'Orazio | Marilyn Monroe by Bert Stern | Batman by Herb Ritts | Monica Bellucci by Walter Chin | Scarlett Johansson by Txema Yeste | Al Pacino by Antoine Le Grand | Monica Bellucci by Ellen von Unwerth | Laetitia Casta by Dominique Issermann | Rose McGowan by Mark Squires | Ethan Hawke by Justin Bishop | George Harrison & Paul McCartney by Robert Whitaker | Marion Cotillard by Ellen Von Unwerth | Robert de Niro by Mark Seliger | Marilyn Monroe by Earl Theisen | Richard Gere by Lorenzo Agius | Jack Nicholson by David Bailey | Zita Johann and director Karl Freund on the set of The Mummy (1932) | Isabella Rossellini by Roberto Manetta | Javier Bardem by Dan Winters | Clint Eastwood by Nicolas Guerin | Angelina Jolie by Francesco Carrozzini | Sigourney Weaver on the set of Alien | Christopher Nolan by Dan Winters | Leonardo DiCaprio and Steven Spielberg on the set of Catch Me If You Can | Marlon Brando on the set of "The Wild One" by Phil Stern | Uma Thurman, Cate Blanchett & Kate Winslet by Annie Leibovitz | Michael Caine and Bob Hoskins by Terry O’Neill on the set of Mona Lisa (1986) | Angelina Jolie by Annie Leibovitz | Carey Mulligan by Alexi Lubomirski | Charlotte Gainsbourg by Craig McDean | Lea Seydoux by Alasdair McLellan | Andy Warhol by Dennis Hopper | Clark Gable and a Giraffe | Maggie Gyllenhaal by Vincent Peters | Hedy Lamarr by Laszlo Willinger | Stanley Kubrick on location outside Madrid, Spain, during production of Spartacus (1960) | John Belushi, Dan Aykroyd and Carrie Fisher on the set of The Blues Brothers. | Natalie Portman by David Slijper | Shia LaBeouf by Craig McDean | Marion Cotillard by Eliott Bliss | Dennis Hopper and David Lynch on the set of Blue Velvet. | Robert Mitchum by Annie Leibovitz | Mickey Hargitay lifting up his wife Jayne Mansfield by Robert Lebeck | Edward Norton by Robbie Fimmano | Peter Sellers, George C. Scott and Stanley Kubrick on the set of Dr. Stranglove | Chet Baker by Bob Willoughby | Amanda Seyfried by Ellen von Unwerth | Amber Heard by Don Flood | Keira Knightley by Ellen von Unwerth | Jon Hamm by Vincent Peters | Sharon Stone by Michel Comte | Jeremy Irons by Michel Comte | Johnny Depp and Terry Gilliam on the set of Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. | Daniel Craig and Berenice Marlohe on the set of Skyfall | Matt Damon, Jude Law and Gwyneth Paltrow in "The Talented Mr. Ripley" | Eva Green by Julia Fullerton-Batten | Robert De Niro by Anne-Marie Fox | John Goodman by Andy Gotts | Marion Cotillard by Elliott Bliss | Ken Watanabe by Annie Leibovitz | George Clooney by Annie Leibovitz | Natalie Portman by David Slijper | Meg Ryan and director Rob Reiner on the set of When Harry Met Sally | Nick Cage by Annie Leibovitz | Michael J. Fox and Huey Lewis on the set of Back to the Future. | Jonah Hill, Paul Rudd, Seth Rogen Jason Segel by Annie Leibovitz | Neil Patrick Harris by Annie Leibovitz | Carey Mulligan by Mada Refujio | Marlon Brando smoking during a break from filming "The Men" | Greta Garbo by Clarence Sinclair Bull | Wicked Witch of the West Magaret Hamilton on Sesame Street | JJ Abrams and R2D2 on the set of Star Wars Episode 7 | Brigitte Bardot by Ghislain Dussart | Stanley Kubrick and Tracy Reed on the set of Dr. Strangelove | Steven Spielberg on the set of "Saving Private Ryan" | Guillermo del Toro with Ivana Baquero - Pan’s Labyrinth | George Clooney by Annie Leibovitz | Marlon Brando by Serge Balkin | Alfred Hitchcock and Composer Bernard Herrmann | Stanley Kubrick at 18 | Kim Novak & Alfred Hitchcock on the set of "Vertigo" | Adriana Lima by Steven Meisel | Willem Dafoe by Patrick Swric | Jake Gyllenhaal by Hedi Slimane | Buster Keaton by Steve Schapiro | Penélope Cruz by Nico | Keira Knightley by Nadav Kander | Rose McGowan by Kate Garner | The Cast and Crew of Jurassic Park | Janet Leigh by Philippe Halsman | Carey Mulligan by Alexi Lubomirski | Keira Knightley by David Bellemere | Penélope Cruz by Nico | Ghost - with Patrick Swayze and Demi Moore | Keir Dullea and Stanley Kubrick on 2001 A Space Odyssey | Frank Zappa by Andrew Kent | Brad Pitt by Annie Leibovitz | Steve McQueen by Barry Feinstein | Nicole Kidman by Herb Ritts | Tennessee Williams and Marlon Brando | Humphrey Bogart as Rick Blaine in Casablanca | Marion Cotillard by Dominique Issermann | Scarlett Johansson by Solve Sundsbo | Reese Witherspoon by Tesh | Grace Kelly by Howell Conant | Jodie Foster by Annie Leibovitz | Elizabeth Taylor on the set of Suddenly, Last Summer by Burt Glinn | Audrey Hepburn on the set of Two for the Road by Terry O’Neill | Keira Knightley by Karen Collins | Behind the scene: RoboCop | Javier Bardem by Andy Gotts | Henry Fonda and Alfred Hitchcock in his cameo from The Wrong Man | Ray Harryhausen working on Medusa for Clash of the Titans | Jennifer Lawrence by Ellen von Unwerth | Wes Anderson and Jude Law on the set of The Grand Budapest Hotel | Mads Mikkelsen by Eddy Brière | Jane Daly getting into costume for The Mysterious Island, 1929. | Zooey Deschanel by Carter Smith | Danny Trejo and Antonio Banderas on the set of Desperado. | Humphrey Bogart by Philippe Halsman | Liza Minnelli and Bob Fosse on Cabaret | Marilyn Monroe by Nickolas Murray | Alfred Hitchcock by Ara Güler | Tom Hiddleston by Francesco Guidicini | Natalie Portman by Tony Duran | Ursula Andress by Herman Leonard | Sir Ben Kingsley by Andy Gotts | Guillermo del Toro in his Home | Louis Armstrong and Cicely Tyson by Sammy Davis Jr. | Scarlett Johansson by Damon Winter | Marilyn Monroe by Cecil Beaton | Eva Green by Julia Fullerton-Batten | Emma Stone as Cabaret's Sally Bowles by Richard Phibbs | Penélope Cruz by Nico | Steven Spielberg on the set of Raiders of the Lost Ark | Madonna by Patrick Demarchelier | Dita Von Teese and Scarlett Johansson by James White | Jennifer Lawrence by Patrick Demarchelier | Marilyn Monroe by Milton Greene | Dustin Hoffman by John Baldessari | Angelina Jolie by Mario Testino | Doug Jones getting in costume for Pan's Labyrinth | Miniature FX on the set of King Kong | Jim Carrey by Annie Leibovitz | George C. Scott and Stanley Kubrick play chess on the set of Dr. Strangelove | Bono & The Edge by Anton Corbijn | Ridley Scott & Denzel Washington on the set of American Gangster | Friends cast by Annie Leibovitz | Tim Burton and Danny Devito in makeup for Batman Returns | Jessica Chastain by Craig McDean | Anne Hathaway by Alexi Lubomirski | Willem Dafoe by Dusan Reljin | Frank Sinatra on set of The Man with The Golden Arm, 1955 by Bob Willoughby | Al Hedison and Patricia Owen, The Fly (1958) | Simon Pegg by Andy Gotts | Marilyn Monroe by Milton Greene | Dustin Hoffman on the set of Tootsie | Angelina Jolie by Mario Testino | Jessica Chastain by Craig McDean | Anne Hathaway by Kai Z Feng | Fay Wray, Bruce Cabot, King Kong (1933) | John C. Reilly by Patrick Hoelck | Robin Williams by Bryce Duffy | Marlon Brando and Frank Sinatra by Richard Avedon | Kirsten Dunst by Kayt Jones | Billy Wilder and Otto Preminger | Reese Witherspoon by Mikael Jansson | Robert Downey Jr. by Rankin | Ethan Hawke by Rainer Hosch | Jeremy Renner wearing Scarlett Johansson's stunt double's mask | Martin Scorsese by Jake Chessum | Juno Temple by Rankin | Steve Buscemi by Jake Chessum | Jessica Chastain by David Slijper | James Dean by Roy Schatt, 1954 | Daniel Craig and Harrison Ford by Michael Muller | Ron Perlman by Nadav Kander | W.C. Fields by Steve McCurry | Zooey and Emily with father Caleb Deschanel | Eva Green by Solve Sundsbo | Buster Keaton - With Photo Of Lon Chaney, Sr. | Gene Hackman by Brian Hamill | Famke Janssen by John Midgley | Robert Pattinson by Annie Leibovitz | Vivien Leigh photographed in costume for Caesar and Cleopatra | Adrian Brody by Patrick Hoelck | Marilyn Monroe by Philippe Halsman | Keira Knightley by Ellen Von Unwerth | Mila Kunis by Doug Inglish | Eva Green by Wong Kar-Wai | John Malkovich by Sandro Miller | James Cromwell by Timothy Greenfield-Sanders | Vivien Leigh by Cecil Beaton (1947) | James Earl Jones and Mark Hamill after a Broadway performance of Fences, 1987 | Eva Green by Rankin | Warren Beatty by Greg Gorman | Monica Bellucci by Ellen von Unwerth | Tom Hiddleston by Phil Sharp | Luc Besson with Jean Reno on the set of Léon: The Professional | Steven Spielberg and Henry Thomas on the set of E.T | Humphrey Bogart by John Florea | Eva Green by Mike Figgis

The Marvel Symphonic Universe and a Rebuttal with A Theory of Film Music

Tony Zhou’s Every Frame a Painting released a video essay called “The Marvel Symphonic Universe” in which he criticizes the Marvel universe for missing a strong connecting musical theme.

His conclusion is the sound is overly reliant on the use of temp music. At the time of this posting, the video sits at 2.6 million views.

But is the answer that simple? Zhou’s video very prescriptive, but it misses a lot. Today he shared this rebuttal on his Facebook page from Dan Golding. Watch this for a different perspective.




What the First TV Ad Ever tells us about our Technological Complacency

After years of unpaid experiments, the FCC officially opened up the airwaves to commercial television broadcasting on July 1, 1941.  NBC’s experimental W2XBS in New York City received the first commercial license becoming WNBT. That very same day, at 2:30PM just before a broadcast of a Brooklyn Dodgers – Philadelphia Phillies baseball game, NBC aired the very first television commercial in the world.

That’s the story according to Ad Age, Fortune, Entertainment Weekly, Slate, Adweek, OpenCulture and many more. Even the official Emmy’s site has an image of this very commercial in their write up.

Only one problem - THAT’S NOT THE AD THAT AIRED!!

Here’s a picture of the ad as it was created:


We have corroboration on the design of the advertisement from a piece that ran in Broadcasting Magazine July 14 1941

First Watch Ad


Further corroboration comes from Jim Von Schilling’s book, “The Magic Window: American Television, 1939-1953

WNBT aired TV’s first commercial at 2:30PM; i was simply a picture test pattern that had been redesigned into a working clock, ticking off the seconds in front of the TV camera. The sponsor’s name, Bulova, appeared on the clock, which ticked for a full minute at 2:30 and later again that night. Bulova paid four dollars for the afternoon spot and eight dollars for the evening, and afterwards they signed up for thirteen weeks of similar commercials. (page 37)

Okay so a bunch of sites saw a YouTube video claiming to be the first TV ad ever produced and bought it? So what? People make mistakes. I certainly have.

But this mistake sheds light on a common cultural problem – our technological complacency. We live in a world of streaming media and camera phones in every pocket. Recording anything today is trivial.

But that wasn’t the case in 1941. Sure we have lots of films that look great from that era – recording an image onto celluloid film was well established. Recording an electronic television signal however… that was not quite there. The first solution was called Kinescope – and guess what it used? Film.



That’s a film camera taking a picture of a TV screen – yeah… the same way kids today record shows off the TV by pointing their phone at the screen. Video Tape as we know it didn’t come about until the early-mid 50s.

So the only way to watch television in 1941 when this first broadcast was made was to watch it live. No record of these early television days exist, at least not the video portion (they did record the audio). Certainly no YouTube video of the first ad exists.

But we’re so ready to believe because these miracles are so common place today that we expect them to have existed forever. There are so many ways technology makes and shapes our lives that we lose sight of where we are in history.

We lose perspective in our complacency.

The Importance and Not-So-Importance of Film Terminology

I start this article with a conviction to rail against the arrogance on display from Sticklers for Terminology. But as I work through the case in my head, I find that the truth with this topic, as with all topics, lies in the delicate balance between two extremes.

Terminology is not a game

Let’s back up… Film like all technical mediums has a very rich lexicon of terms – it is important that you as a filmmaker are familiar and understand these terms and the concepts behind them.

However we should not put all our faith in what sometimes can be arbitrary language differences. Furthermore we have to be careful about rushing to judgement on people for their use (or perceived improper use) of terminology. What results from this is verbal tribalism: “You’re not a filmmaker if you don’t call XYZ what I call it.”

As someone who produces film educational materials, I know this quagmire all too well. In a quick video I did a long time ago, I mistakenly said the phrase “pan down”. Panning describes the rotational movement of the camera from side to side – “Tilt Down” would have been the correct term. In the heat of the moment, I let the wrong term slip.

Pan Tilt

But would you argue with a superior on a set if he/she told you to “pan down”? I once worked for a filmmaker from Iran, he was well spoken in English for someone whose native tongue is Farsi – but when he called directions during a live multi-cam shoot, he always had a hard time explaining the what he wanted. On numerous occasions the instruction would simply be to move the camera so I would “get the guy”.

Which guy? ”

The guy, THE GUY!

If he ever told to “pan down a little” I would not start in with a terminology debate… I would just tilt the camera down a bit and never think of it again. So in the case of “pan down” – I was clearly in the wrong – But there have been several cases where I have been called wrong on much more arbitrary uses of the language.


One such example came from a channel that used a puppet to explain filmmaking – they insisted that the term for the line from the 180 degree rule was the “stage line” and I was wrong to use the term “action line”. Now my “action line” may be a bastardization of the term “line of action” and may confuse Google with the “action line” used in drawing - but I think it’s perfectly apt description of the concept – and actually far better than “stage line” because “stage line” conveys a grounding in the physical set when in fact the line of action can be mobile and fluid depending on the camera movement with no regards to the actual stage. Either way, the concept is easily conveyed. But in his “25 years of Hollywood Experience” he has never heard of “action line” so therefor everything I had to say on the subject was invalidated… oh well.

But the one big terminology debate I think will never leave me is the discussion I had about 3 years ago when I first released our video: “Hollywood’s History of Faking It: the Evolution of Greenscreen Compositing“. I received a message from someone that I had respected (but never met) telling me he thought it was a good video but I made a mistake by saying the term “keying” was now a blanket statement pretty much applied to all greenscreen composition. He added that he couldn’t share the video because he’d be laughed out of the industry by his friends who were real “legitimate” film special effects artists.

Okay, here’s some of the background on this subject: the technical name for greenscreen (or bluescreen) is “Traveling Matte” – but the problem is no one who would benefit from this video would know what a Traveling Matte is – which is why it doesn’t appear in the title.

This is a Traveling Matt

This is a Traveling Matt

The term “chromakey” originally came from analog video switchers and they were pretty horrendous. So my friend is correct… up to a certain point in history.

After finding himself out of work when the studio he was at downsized, Petro Vlahos, the man who perfected blue screen Travelling Matte – turned his attention to video – eventually changing the television world with what would be called the Ultimatte. Notice how Vlahos stayed away from the word “Keyer” because of it’s implication with that crappy old technology… but that didn’t stop the rest of the industry. Ultimatte did what a Keyer does but better – so eventually the process of getting rid of a greenscreen and replacing it with something else took on the word “Chromakey” EVEN though originally it was ONLY applied to a blunt tool on an analog switcher.

One of dozens of modern products labeled as "Keyers"

One of dozens of modern products labeled as “Keyers”

I tried to argue with industry examples like the plugins “Keylight” that come bundled with After Effects, “Ultra Key” – the loads of industry material that utilize the term “chromakeying” as part of the modern lexicon of filmmaking… but my friend was sure I was making a fatal career mistake by saying the term “chromakey” had blossomed to mean more than it originally did.

Well now the video has been seen 2.2 million times with over 1,000 comments and I have yet had ANYONE take issue with that terminology (although that might change if some people read this article and decide to mess up my record).

So those a few examples of I’ve been slapped around for using the wrong terminology – seems pedantic looking back at it, but people still want to put the armor on and go to battle. That’s the one extreme I wanted to talk about… But if we have vastly different definitions on basic terms, then we have a problem.

For some reason, talking lenses always brings up experts in the field that don’t have a clue. I had one guy who needed to correct me by saying that Field of View is not the viewing  angle but the area covered with the lens when focused at it’s nearest focusable point. This value was always listed on Zeiss’s website. Okay… a quick look at Zeiss’s page and I did find “coverage at close range” but that is not field of view.

I guess what I’m trying to say is, terminology is important. We need a common set of words to express what we want to do. But on flip side, let’s recognize the fluidity of language and not use words as dividers to separate artist from artist. Instead, let’s use terms to educate and share our filmmaking culture, knowledge and history.

And forgive me if I should ever tell you to “pan down”


Wanna Go on an Adventure? World Nomads Puts You on Assignment in Vietnam

Wanna go on an adventure?

For nearly ten years, World Nomads has been sponsoring photographers, writers and filmmakers to go on a once-in-a-lifetime assignment to capture the stories from around the globe.

This year, one aspiring filmmaker will get a chance to make a travel film in Vietnam!

TFS- facebook cover photo

If selected you’ll get:

  • A free flight from wherever you’re at to Vietnam.
  • 10 days all-expenses paid professional mentorship with filmmaker and director Brian Rapsey in Vietnam
  • A 3-day post production workshop
  • Video Mic Pro with XLR Adapter, Smart Lav, Lavalier Mic and accessories from RØDE Microphones
  • A state-of-the-art travel camera bag from Crumpler
  • A copy of Lonely Planet’s Best Ever Video Tips.
  • And, of course, Travel Insurance from World Nomads for the duration of the trip!

So what do you have to get this awesome opportunity?

Head over to the World Nomads Site and apply. You’ll need to make a 3-minute film about an inspirational travel story – try going out there and interviewing an adventurer and bring their compelling travel story to life. This could be anything from a story of immigration to a close wildlife encounter to a triumph of summiting Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Upload that video and YouTube or Vimeo and complete your application form by writing about what winning the scholarship would mean to you and why you should be selected.

But you better hurry because the application deadline is September 28, 2016. Winners will be announced October 14th and the adventure starts on February 27, 2017.

Think you have what it takes to be a winner? Check out last year’s shortlisted travel films here and watch winner Coleman Lowndes film here:

Are Films Worse Now Than They Were in 1972?

Every film buff ought to know that 1972 gave the world what many consider the best film ever made: The Godfather



We also got a some pretty great films that are still discussed today:




Last Tango in Paris


So 1972 must have been a knock out year for cinema – way better than the crap that’s coming out in 2016.

Well… let’s go through a few “not so classic films” all which hit the public in 1972:

Santa and the Ice Cream Bunny

When Santa’s sleigh gets stuck in Florida, he tells a group of kids the story of Thumbelina.

Curse of the Headless Horseman

A phantom horseman who appears every night with a human head tucked under his arm lets it be known that he is searching for eight gunfighters.

The Cremators

An alien life form that is a huge ball of living matter invades earth, and replenishes itself by absorbing people.

Hot Summer Week

Two girls on their way to a hippie encounter session pick up a crazed Vietnam veteran, who might just be the serial killer who is murdering hippies in the area.

Angels’ Wild Women

Rowdy biker women get more than they bargained for after joining a commune.

Invasion of the Blood Farmers

Somewhere in upstate New York, a young woman is terrorized by a group of rural farmers primarily interested in a harvest of blood.

The Rats Are Coming! The Werewolves Are Here!

The daughter in a family of werewolves decides to put an end to the family curse.

The Night of a Thousand Cats

Millionaire playboy Hugo (whose lack of facial expressions give him the appearance of a Thundercat marionette) flies around Acapulco in his private helicopter to pick up sexy young women.

Blood Freak

A biker comes upon a girl with a flat tire and offers her a ride home. He winds up at a drug party with the girl’s sister, then follows her to a turkey farm owned by her father.

The Magnificent Seven Ride! 

Marshal Chris Adams turns down a friend’s request to help stop the depredations of a gang of Mexican bandits.

Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland

With Peter Sellers, Dudely Moore and Michael Crawford.

Terror at Orgy Castle

A young couple on a European vacation get mixed up with a countess and a hunchbacked servant at a castle where black masses are held.

Night of the Lepus

Giant mutant rabbits terrorize the southwest!!

Night of the Cobra Woman

Horror story of a beautiful girl turns into a man-eating cobra.

When Women Lost Their Tails

Two tribes of dimwitted cavemen prepare for war against each other.

The Thing with Two Heads

A rich but racist man is dying and hatches an elaborate scheme for transplanting his head onto another man’s body. His health deteriorates rapidly, and doctors are forced to transplant his head onto the only available candidate: a black man from death row.

… and then there’s a bunch of mainstream porno films like Prison GirlsRed Hot Zorro, Night Call Nurses, and Schoolgirl Report Part 4: What Drives Parents to Despair

* * * * *

 Now that’s certainly not an exhaustive list but I’m exhausted already going through it. The hair styles might be different, the budgets might be smaller, but there’s a whole lot of crap up there. The point is, every year there’s going to be a ton of shitty films. Every generation will remember the best and toss out the garbage in the dust bin of history.

Chill out – watch the films you want to watch, don’t watch the films you don’t want to watch. Film will always be film – an evolving human institution of both high and low brow. Things change, but they always stay the same, just enjoy the ride.

Watch The Title Sequence for “Empire Strikes Back” done James Bond Style

Designed, directed, and produced by Kurt Rauffer
Instructor: Daniel Oeffinger
Music: Spectre by Radiohead

Star Wars is one of Hollywood’s biggest franchises to date, containing one of the most unique universes in sci-fi fiction. Not only is the universe incredibly iconic, so is it’s title sequence (the famous title crawl). Designed by Dan Perri, the title sequence is one of the most recognizable introductions in the history of film.

Growing up in the 90s where Star Wars was released on VHS, the franchise really sparked my imagination as a child. It not only let me exercise my imagination but also supplied me with some of the happiest memories as I watched it with my family. After re-watching “The Empire Strikes Back,” I decided to use this as a chance to create a homage in the form of a title sequence. This would also serve as my senior “thesis” at SVA and took me the whole semester to complete.

The style and tone of the animation was inspired by the James Bond title sequences. The music was a rejected song from the newest Bond film, Spectre, sung by Radiohead. I really wanted to play on the concept of Luke trying to find himself and true purpose, so the music and inspiration felt fitting.


Is Captain America Truly An American Hero?

What Makes a Hero? Today Kyle is asking what makes cinematic heroes – at least American cinematic heroes. And to answer that he’s digging into some classics such as Humphrey Bogart and John Wayne. But what about Captain America? Does Cap fit the bill of what an American Hero should be? Don’t worry he dives into that as well, to find out if we should be rooting for Captain American in Civil War, or if we’re on the wrong side of the conflict.

Captain America2

I Want To Believe – The Power of Narrative

We are obviously living in a technological super age when it comes to effects. Go to YouTube and type in “VFX breakdown” and you’ll see the latest and greatest Hollywood has to offer. But many still deride Visual Effects – saying they can always spot CGI and that it’s ruining film today as we know it.

But then there lies sort of the odd conundrum of 1940′s The Thief of Bagdad.

From Roger Ebert’s own great movie review (May 6, 2009)

It remains one of the greatest of fantasy films, on a level with “The Wizard of Oz.” To see either film is to see the cinema incorporating every technical art learned in the 1930s and employing them to create enchanting visions. Today, when dizzying CGI effects, the Queasy-Cam and a frantic editing pace seem to move films closer to video games, witness the beauty of “Thief of Bagdad” and mourn.

If we were to be completely honest the special effects of The Thief of Bagdad simply don’t hold up well today – many of these techniques are about the same quality as the output from a first year high school video class:

Thief of Bagdad


Are we really suppose to mourn a film which features a blue screen job like that? Even the use of practicals in the shot on the right is obviously a paper mache form on a machine. It moves with the linearity of a Murphy bed being lowered from the wall and twice as slow.

And yet, this film makes Roger Ebert’s “Great Movies” list. To be fair, The Thief of Bagdad showcased groundbreaking special effects for it’s time but now, taken out of context and compared to modern techniques, they’re laughably incompetent. How does a film that trades so heavily on special effects survive to be considered a classic?

The answer is simple – we want to believe.

I want to Believe

Belief is our only mechanism for understanding the world. The universe is nothing more that a swirling soup of energy – vibrations of energy make up matter and electromagnetic forces give us the illusion of solidness – of touch. Our eyes respond to a narrow band of these vibrations – a small section we call visible light that stimulates cells to send electrical impulses to our brains. Sound is the beating of air molecules against a drum in our ear canals. From the constant feedback we get from our senses we try to gather information about the world around us and that begins with a belief that our senses represent reality.

But our senses are easily fooled – not just by trickery but by everyday interactions. We look in a mirror but we do not believe there is an identical person standing on the other side of the glass. When it’s foggy outside, we don’t assume that the world has been erased and turned gray – instead we believe that there is a low hanging mist that obstructs our view. We don’t need to test it every time, we just believe even though our senses may tell us otherwise.

In the case of the physical world, science has done a pretty outstanding job reaching beyond our biological capabilities in order to explain to universe. But even science itself is a belief - more accurately a philosophy (hence the Ph. in Ph.D). Things get even more muddied when we step into history, politics, morality, ethics and of course film criticism.

A friend on Facebook once worried about the future of information now that face swapping technology can make people say anything - people will be easily fooled into believing anything. I had to remind him that we don’t have the technology yet but there’s already plenty of people on Facebook that will believe anything (like ahem.. chemtrails). The bar to fooling people is already incredibly low, you don’t need high tech to get people to buy on some phoney baloney crap (like… chemtrails).

That’s because it doesn’t matter what the reality is – we as human beings want to believe. We want the narrative we hold true to be true. And that means seeking confirmation and vilifying opposition. Even the pursuit of “reality” is flawed in that it believes “reality” to be something that is knowable or measureable. The trouble with this understanding of the world is… you guessed it… it itself is a belief.

This is not a pipe

This is not a pipe

So what the hell does this have to do with filmmaking?

How we approach film and talk about film and make film is based on our own internal narrative – what do we believe and want to be true. In the passage above, Roger Ebert has already created the narrative in his review – his narrative shapes how we perceive – predisposing us to liking the film as superior to modern creations because we all admire and like the late Roger Ebert. We can tolerate the special effects because we have the narrative that it was groundbreaking for it’s day whereas a modern CGI cash grab has no excuse (the fact that Thief of Bagdad is just charming helps too).

But many more negative judgemental themes float about in film discussion circles today – themes like “the Golden Age of Hollywood” or “CGI is crap” or “Movies from the 70s are way better than today”. These are are prevalent in the zeitgeist but easily dismissed with evidence (75% of the films made in the Golden era were B movies, Plenty of beautiful CGI out there, and the 70s had their fair share of crap). The danger in these critical themes is they predispose us from enjoying contemporary culture in exchange for a fleeting sense of superiority.

In terms of filmmaking, an internal narrative can blind us to possibilities of our medium. There is a myth about Alfred Hitchcock that he storyboarded every shot so that when it came time to shoot the film, it was just a clinical matter of following the storyboards. This narrative makes for great legend building, but is far from the truth and even completely undesirable in live action – you don’t just draw a shot and it magically comes to being. But the narrative persists and it colors young filmmakers minds thinking everything needs a storyboard instead of letting a scene grow organically.

Narratives are powerful things. Narrative makes film work. We know the CGI dragon isn’t real in the same light that we know The Prince of Bagdad doesn’t have a humongous genie. But it doesn’t matter (or it shouldn’t) because ultimately we want to believe. We buy in because a good film asks us to.

The magic of the human experience and the magic of the narrative meet at the crossroads called cinema. It is our most powerful tool and yet it can be our most limiting. Being prepared to change that belief, to weigh and accept new and different modes of thinking will lead to better filmmaking and better film viewing experience. But in the end, perhaps that’s just wishful thinking.


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